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Shotshell Pressure: How to Avoid Trouble

Shotshell Pressure: How to Avoid Trouble/* custom css */.td_uid_2_5f3776f73bd52_rand.td-a-rec-img { text-align: left; } .td_uid_2_5f3776f73bd52_rand.td-a-rec-img img { margin: 0 auto 0 0; } A clean-burning powder with applications for 12-, 20- and 28-gauge target and field loads, IMR’s SR 7625 is also viable for handgun loads. One hears about several types of shotshell pressure, but for handloading there is only one pressure that you truly need to understand, service pressure. SAAMI has organized US gun manufacturers to adhere to a set of standards for service pressure, and all modern models of guns made in the US are proofed or tested to make sure they withstand these pressures. Service pressure is predicated on the diameter of the bore (its gauge) and the length of the chamber (in inches). It is understood that the standard gives you a tiny bit of leeway to make a mistake in handloading. If you exceed the service pressure with a load delivering 10 or even 100 fps greater than load data suggests is correct, your load will probably perform just fine and your gun will be safe. For your own sake though, you should consider the service pressure to be an inflexible ceiling. By saying that service pressure gives you some leeway, I mean that it is purposefully fudged. SAAMI does not discuss this “fudge factor” in public, but it is perhaps as little as 10- to as much as 25-percent above the advertised service pressure. Still, this number is much lower than what is called “proof pressure.” Alliant’s Herco is a popular and versatile shotshell reloading powder, along with Green Dot and Red Dot. Proofing is an electro-mechanical process of testing barrels to be sure that they will withstand normal shooting for hunting or competition. It involves firing super-hot, high-pressure shells (heavy shot and slow-burning powders) and then measuring their effects in a barrel. Normally, manufacturers test shotguns with one or two proof rounds and then carefully examine the barrels for damage. You may be certain that any modern barrel has been carefully proofed to keep you safe, keep your pellets in the vicinity of the target and minimize the possibility that any shooter will be injured. After proofing, barrels are customarily stamped with a particular indentation that indicates they have been tested. Proof stamps are the kind of minutiae that fascinates students of shotgunning, in part because the stamps of foreign “proof houses” are interesting for their variety and intrinsic history. Americans, who are typically more casual with their sense of tradition, commonly neglect such attention to detail preferring instead to concentrate on the shooting characteristics of their guns and loads as tools rather than heirlooms, means to an end rather than the end in itself. Related GunDigest Articles Reloading Ammo: Cartridge Primers and Pressure Differences Gun Digest Reloading Video Series Episode 01: Basics of Reloading "Gun Digest Reloading" "Video Series Episode" 8: Troubleshooting Chances are that you will never see a shell marked for proofing, but if you do, it will bear a conspicuous label (“Danger – High Pressure”) and may, in addition, be clearly marked as a proof load. If you do see such a shell, do NOT attempt to fire it through your personal gun. A proof load generates pressures far in excess of the accepted service pressure. If you are shooting a 12-gauge Remington 1100 chambered for 2-3/4-inch shells, the maximum SAAMI service pressure standard is 11,500 psi. The SAAMI proof pressure for this popular gas gun on the other hand is achieved with a load of 1-1/2-ounces of shot and measures between 19,000 psi and 20,500 psi, practically twice the service pressure. Not only would repeated firing of that level of pressure damage your gun, but its recoil would probably knock you off your feet. If your reloading press breaks, you can build loads by hand … with the right measuring devices, that is. A 1-1/8-ounce load of #8s will be about 460 pellets. You can count those. You can also use hand dippers to check the throw of your loads. SOME SHOTSHELL PRESSURE PROBLEMS Loss of pressure during the burning cycle diminishes any chance of a complete and efficient powder burn. The result is shot pellets without the energy or velocity you normally expect and a greater build-up of crud in your barrel. A small interruption could be a collapsed gas seal, for example. Inconsistent pressures and velocities are the clues that your load components may be breaking down. Irregularities in the pressure curve, perhaps caused by a component shift, reduce the effectiveness of the propellant burn because compression momentarily slackens. These unpredictable component shifts have several identifiable origins: weak cushion sections in wads, weak seals or worn-out hulls with poor crimps.

Mind Your Manners: Range Etiquette

Mind Your Manners: Range Etiquette

There’s not much that can ruin a shooting experience quicker than getting stuck in a lane near someone with poor range etiquette. Whether you’re a fresh gunny, or a shooting veteran, everyone can benefit from brushing up on proper range etiquette before heading out to a shared shooting location (most of the “rules” mentioned in this post apply to personal firing grounds, too). While this isn’t meant to be a definitive, all-inclusive set of range regulation, it should serve as a helpful starting point. First and foremost, regardless of the shooting locale, are the rules of safe firearms handling. 1. Treat all firearms as loaded. Even if you watch someone clear a firearm before handing it to you, clear it again. You never know if they missed something by accident, and complacency kills. 2. Do not point the firearm at anything you do not wish to destroy. Anything traveling at a few hundred feet per second hurts, even a .22 LR round. Bullets are really good at putting holes in things that way. 3. Keep your finger off the trigger and and out of the trigger until you are ready to fire. Pulling the trigger doesn’t require a lot of effort, especially with more sensitive 2-6lb triggers, so it’s safest not to put your finger anywhere near that bang switch til you’re sure you want to fire. 4. Be aware of your target and what’s beyond it. This applies less with organized indoor lanes and more to open ranges, especially when shooting on private property. Any time something or someone is downrange, they’re at risk from your muzzle, even if you’re not trying to aim at anything beyond your intended target. Not to mention, paper (as in a paper target) is not really known for being able to stop bullets. Berms are better on that front. These next rules are specifically applicable to range etiquette. Follow your range’s rules. Some ranges are restrictive about whether or not you can draw from a holster, how fast you can shoot, and what calibers are allowed, among other things. Each range is different, so it’s important to pay attention to the individual range’s regulations if you’d like to continue shooting at that facility. Generally, the particular rules at a range are in place for the safety of everyone who shoots there, and to keep the experience positive for as many as possible. Watch where you load and unload your gun. Most ranges have specific areas where they want you to uncase/case or unholster/holster firearms. While you might be pulling an unloaded firearm out of your case to get it prepped before you step into your lane, those around you who are following the first rule of firearms safety don’t think it’s unloaded, and that is worrisome. Walking around with a firearm in hand when you’re not in the designated areas for handling uncased/unholstered guns is another way to arouse discomfort from range officers or other range goers, and is a good way to get yelled at, even if you’re not muzzling (pointing the gun at) anyone. Be respectful. Shooting in a shared space sucks when the people around you aren’t respectful of the other shooters or the facility and can make a great range experience sour in a hurry. It’s a complete bummer when I’m headed out to the range to get some footage, or just plain do some plinking with my family and a couple of lanes down are some young guys trying to show off for each other with their displays of “firearms bravado,” which normally includes denigrating each other loudly, and shouted boasting of their shooting “skills,” and using their firearms to gesture animatedly (and unwittingly muzzling half the other range goers). Don’t be those guys. Follow your range rules, have a good time, and clean up after yourself (for example, police your spent brass and toss used targets). Dress wisely. Far be it from me to make style recommendations, for men or women, but this guideline is meaningful for its practical and respectful benefits. Shooting at a public range means that there are other people around. It’s respectful of the others around you to tone down any graphic or offensive clothing. Shooters often tend to be a more conservative crowd, and while it’s not a strict “rule” not to wear shirts like this, you’ll probably end up aggravating fewer people if you avoid wearing them at the range. This guideline takes a practical tone in regard to female clothing especially. Looking sexy is certainly not against any range rule I know, but the more exposed skin, the more places you can catch a hot casing and earn yourself a burn. This becomes more meaningful with regard to low cut tops; I’ve seen plenty of screeching and gun-waving from women who didn’t plan for that particular “wardrobe malfunction.” Wear comfortable shoes. I always try to make the most of every range trip, so I rarely spend less than a few hours every time I visit. That kind of time on one’s feet can get uncomfortable if the range goer is sporting impractical footwear. This often-overlooked aspect of shooting prep is especially helpful when shooting in outdoor ranges, which are susceptible to precipitation. Ladies seem to fall victim to impractical footwear more than males (I love heels, but they aren’t well suited for the range). The burn risk mentioned above is also affected by shoe choice. Open toed shoes, like sandals, put those toes and tops of feet at risk for making an uncomfortably hot catch. As mentioned earlier, these few points aren’t the only rules for range etiquette, but they should serve as a starting guideline for minding your manners at the range. What are some pointers for range etiquette you follow when you go shooting?

Shooting Is Simple, But It Is Not Easy

Shooting Is Simple, But It Is Not Easy

The essential concepts of shooting are quite simple, sight alignment and trigger control, but shooting is not instinctive and it is not easy. As student of shooting, I have always sought to understand things at a fundamental level. For me, shooting is a journey. Here is a description of where I am along the path. Be aware. See first. Think fast and then act without hesitation. There are only two essential things you must do to hit a target. 1. You must align the barrel with the target. 2. You must pull the trigger without disturbing that alignment. All else – stance, grip, sight picture and all the fundamentals – is helpful, but not essential. The amount of time and effort you must put into barrel alignment and trigger pull depends on the distance to and size of the target. Speed is achieved by spending only the time necessary to make the hit and no more. Inside ten yards, you can shoot both eyes open and be very sloppy with the trigger because the target subtends so much angle. At contact distances, you don’t need to use the sights at all. Beyond 10 yards, sight alignment and smooth trigger pull become more important. Past 50 yards, you can still hit, but your sight alignment and trigger must be very clean. Can you think of any sport where the players close one eye? You need binocular vision for depth perception and peripheral vision. It does help precision shooting to close one eye and it may even be essential to hit a particular target. Don’t spend any more time than is necessary closing one eye or looking at the sights. See what you need to see. Search for it and focus on it. Your eyes can only focus at a single distance at any given time. For full situational awareness , you should be constantly transitioning near and far. When you need a precise shot, you must focus on the sights, but in follow through, you must fight to shift to a more distant point. You must scan not only right and left but near and far. When not shooting, keep your gun down so it doesn’t block your field of view nor cover anything you are not willing to destroy. See what you need to see. Get the sight picture you must have for the accuracy that the situation requires. Provide the trigger pull needed to attain the required accuracy. Follow through, assess the target, repeat as necessary. Follow the target to the ground. Check your buddy, check your gun, reload, stage your magazines. Look for the next threat. These ideas are simple, but shooting is not instinctive and it is not easy.

5 Ways to Manage Bathroom Waste in a Survival Situation

5 Ways to Manage Bathroom Waste in a Survival Situation

One of the least appealing factors to consider in a survival situation is how to deal with waste. If not properly handled the waste situation can lead to serious hygienic issues in your home or camp so it is worth being familiar with a few basic options as to how you can manage bathroom waste in a survival situation. Today we are going to break down some easy ways to keep the human waste under control in your home, bunker, or camp that will require minimal setup and complexity. Hygiene is a huge part of proper survival discipline and will absolutely improve the longevity and quality of life for you and your family. I know that in the instances I’ve gone into the brush for periods of time I’ve learned just how quickly bathroom necessities can become a priority and just how many of us neglect to consider that factor until it’s too late. Quick Navigation 1. Dig a Cat Hole 2. Compost Toilets 3. Garbage Bag on a Toilet 4. Dig a Latrine 5. Use a 5 Gallon Bucket

Check Out These Cool AR-15 Accessories

/* custom css */.td_uid_2_5f379cc523ecd_rand.td-a-rec-img { text-align: left; } .td_uid_2_5f379cc523ecd_rand.td-a-rec-img img { margin: 0 auto 0 0; } Part of the allure of the AR platform is its versatility. Starting as a military arm, the AR’s popularity has increased at such a rate it seems there’s now an attachment that will do just about anything, even wash your car. AR-15 accessories abound in today's aftermarket. One of the great things about the AR-15 is the versatility built into the system. Starting as a military arm, the AR’s popularity has increased at such a rate it seems there’s now an attachment that will wash your car. The gun can be transformed to handle any duty. Further, improvements in the trigger and floating the front end have enhanced the accuracy and versatility of the weapon. And nowadays, it seems like you can attach almost anything to the picatinny rails on an AR (I like the Daniel Defense oval-shaped four-rail grip I got from Wilson Combat). AR-15 Stock Options One item I’ve added to my AR that really makes it fit better is Magpul Industry’s PRS stock, which lets you change the length of pull and cheek height via two small wheels. The wheels are ergonomically located so you can make adjustments with your non-trigger hand, as it’s held back on the stock when bench-shooting. The cheek-piece adjustment has made it easier for me to get my face onto the stock and get on target faster. Also, with my cheek in the same place every time, I get greater consistency from shot to shot. Related GunDigest Articles AR-15 Review: Get Tactical in 2015 AR-15 Review: Colt Expanse M4 AR-15 Optics: Red Dots The stock is easily installed with a screwdriver and a 1/8-inch hex key. The extended length of the length-of-pull adjustment is 11.45 inches, but you can also add an optional extended butt pad if you want more length The newer Generation II stock added some length and reduced the weight. That’s always a good thing. The older I get, the heavier everything gets. I really like the ease with which the stock can be adjusted. It would be great for a police department, in which officers of varying size could adjust the weapon for individual fit. Although no one else will shoot my AR, the adjustments are still useful. Adjusting the settings to my stature gives me a great initial fit. However, I find that when I get into different shooting positions, a slight adjustment helps the rifle fit more precisely. Also, I might be shooting in cold conditions while wearing heavier clothing, so I’ll want to make subtle changes to adjust the length of pull. The Magpul stock lets me do that easily. Magpul makes the stocks for the AR-10 and AR/M-16. Armalite puts the stocks on its SASS (Semiauto Sniper System) .308 rifles. I have also have a carbine with a collapsible stock. Long-range shooting isn’t an issue with this gun, but quick sighting is. DPMS makes sights that clamp on the rail — front and rear — of a flat-top model. They flip up when needed and down when they are not. I like the carry-top model for a close-quarters weapon and use the peep sights that come with it. Most close-quarters battles don’t require sights anyway, but you have them if needed. A Long-Range Look Flat-top uppers also help you take advantage of the already-accurate AR. These help you mount long-range scopes — and not so high that it’s nearly impossible to get a good cheek weld when sighting the rifle. I have a Leupold VX-III 4.5-14×40 mm scope on one of my ARs. The gun is capable of minute-of-angle accuracy and has routinely killed coyotes at 400 yards. Having a long-range scope that lines up well really make those shots easier. Leupold’s new Indexed Matched Lens System and Varminter Ranging and Drop Compensator Reticule make a perfect top for an accurate varmint or tactical rifle. The clarity and light transmission is excellent in dim light. It’s important to have quality light-gathering lenses, because I’ve never been on a SWAT callout that didn’t start or end during evening, and the light-gathering quality of Leupold glass will carry you until night-vision equipment is needed.

SSAR-15SBS Slide Fire Stock for the AR-15

“I don’t care what we do when I am here, but the only thing we have to do is go to the gun range and do some shooting.” With that being the only request my grandfather made for his recent week long stay with us, obviously there was no way I could turn him down. Plus, I will use any excuse to go to the shooting range and what better excuse could there be than this? On range day, Gramps told me that he had a surprise in store for me. He then removed his Stag Arms 4L left handed AR-15 out of its case, which I noticed was complete with a Slide Fire stock. We both instantly looked at each other with two huge mischievous grins. To others, our faces probably would have resembled the faces two little kids who just discovered how much fun it would be to attach firecrackers to our sister’s Barbie dolls and watch them blow up. A still from the video of my Grandpa enjoying his Slide Fire stock. I knew about the Slide Fire stock just from being active within the gun community, but I had never seen it up close, held it, nor shot with it. My grandfather informed me that he had purchased this Slide Fire stock just before his trip started and also had not shot with it. With both of us being new to this type of stock, we weren’t sure if we would be able to get it to operate on our first try. My grandpa shot it first, and as you can see in the video, he had quite the smile on his face after shooting with it. Noteable Features One of the first things that I noticed about the Slide Fire stock was that it aesthetically resembled a modern AR-15 stock. This may not be important to some, but for me, aesthetics are important. Personally, I do not want to look like I am shooting a toy or a paintball gun. Slide Fire also makes what I would classify as a more “futuristic” looking stock which is called the OGR model. Slide Fire OGR model. Photo courtesy of slidefire.com Slide Fire SBS model. Photo courtesy of slidefire.com My grandfather is a left handed shooter, so he naturally purchased the left handed version of his Slide Fire SBS. He had no issues operating it; but I, on the other hand (no pun intended), could not operate the left handed Slide Fire as intended when shooting it right handed. Being ambidextrous, when I switched to shooting left handed, I still could not get it to fire more than two shots per burst. However, it should be noted that it might have been due to improper lubrication of the BCG. There is another feature that the Slide Fire stock offers, but we did not use, and that is the ability to simply turn a knob to lock it into “semi-auto” mode. This just makes the stock stationary, hence not allowing us to “bump-fire”. A final note I would like to make is that this stock is polymer. You may be thinking to yourself: well, so is every Magpul stock. That is true, but to me, the Slide Fire did have somewhat of a “cheap” feel to it, whereas Magpul stocks that I have used do not. There are other “bump-fire assisting” stocks on the market that are made of metal, for example, Fostech Outdoor’s Bumpski stock for AK variants, or the DefendAR-15 for AR-15 rifles. However, the Bumpski and DefendAR-15 stocks run nearly $100 more costly than their polymer Slide Fire cousins (a standard Slide Fire SSAR-15 OGR costs $370 compared to the Bumpski’s $450). Which do you prefer? Get your Slide Fire stock HERE.

Summary

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